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¶ bp41» We are born into a world of traditions. The traditions that we are born into have sets of rules, written and non-written. We are taught or influenced by our parents, teachers, environment, mind(s), the language(s) we speak, and our biology to believe in certain things and act in certain ways. From this we form a belief system, or mindset. A "mindset" is a perceptual set and through this set we perceive the world. A mindset acts like a filter. It filters out any mental conceptions or realities that do not fit our mindset.
¶ bp42» A person who strongly believes that victimizers are victims themselves, does not see the crime a victimizer commits in the same way as one who believes that everyone is totally at fault for their crimes, or the way the victim sees the crime, or in the way that I do. (see "Freedom and Law" paper [NM17])
A person who does not know anything about the game of baseball who overhears someone talking about Smith stealing second base, may think that Smith committed a crime.
¶ bp43» As our knowledge and background filters our perception of the words, "Smith stole second base," so too with almost everything else. Words have different meaning to different people. The word "liberal" means something different to a liberal than to a conservative. The word "communist" means something different to a communist than to a capitalist. The word "Catholic" means something different to a Catholic than to a Protestant. The word "evolution" means something different to an evolutionist than to a creationist. A peaceful countryside, where a nuclear plant is planned, means something different to environmentalists than to the owner or builder of the nuclear plant.
Ptolemy’s Mathematical-Geocentric Theory
¶ bp44>> One of the biggest examples of a mindset was the geocentric theory in which the earth was the center of the universe. The geocentric theory is the idea that the earth is the center of the universe while the sun, moon, planets, and stars made a complete revolution around the earth each day. This theory was represented well by Claudius Ptolemy. Claudius Ptolemy’s work commonly known as the Almagest was actually called "Mathematical Systematic Treatise" in the Greek version because it was a mathematical system. Ptolemy believed that mathematics was the highest form of science:
¶ bp46>> Today the public makes light of the Almagest by thinking of it as some naive theological or church backed doctrine. But instead it was the most scientific work of its day containing abundant mathematical proof with tables and charts, with premises from Greek philosophy, not church doctrine. "One of the most influential scientific works in history, and a masterpiece of technical exposition in its own right." (G.J. Toomer, p. vii) Yes, today the geocentric theory seems preposterous, since after all, we know that the earth is not the center of the universe, and in fact that the earth makes one revolution around the sun each year. We believe this even though it appears (empirical evidence) from our eyesight that the sun, planets, and stars revolve around the earth each day.
¶ bp46>> "His name was Claudius Ptolemaeus ... he lived from approximately A.D. 100 to approximately A.D. 175, and that he worked in Alexandria, the principal city of Greco-Roman Egypt, which possessed, among other advantages, what was probably still the best library in the ancient world. . . . As is implied by its Greek name, . . . , ‘mathematical systematic treatise,’ the Almagest is a complete exposition of mathematical astronomy as the Greeks understood the term." (Toomer, p. 1) By the "fourth century (and probably much earlier), when Pappus wrote a commentary on it, the Almagest had become the standard textbook on astronomy which it was to remain for more than a thousand years.... It was dominant to an extent and for a length of time which is unsurpassed by any scientific work except Euclid’s Elements.... " (Toomer p. 2-3)
¶bp47>> "Then, in the second century A.D., came Claudius Ptolemaeus, an Egyptian -- The great Ptolemy who was to be the uncontested monarch of astronomy for a millennium and a half. He restored the harmonious cosmos Hipparchus had shattered. Ptolemy was a theoretician of such superior qualities that only Newton can be considered his peer. A universal mind, he perfected Greek mathematics and Greek natural science in general. His achievement appears all the more impressive when we compare it with the ordinary science of his time, which was hopelessly bogged down in speculation.
¶bp48>> "Ptolemy called his principal work on astronomy the Great System (Megale Syntaxis tes Astronomias, later known as Almagest from the Arabic translation). This somewhat arrogant title was fully justified, for he had examined every problem in astronomy, and solved every one with Euclidean precision. Ptolemy created the first complete scientific system — a structure so vast and coherent that not even the comprehensive mind of an Aristotle could have conceived it, let alone worked it out.
¶bp49>> "Toward the solution of the chief problem, the apparently irregular velocities of the planets, he made a crucial discovery. Ptolemy drew an overlapping circle near Apollonius’ circle.... The second circles came to be known as Ptolemy’s epicycles. From the center of the epicycle the motion around Apollonius’ eccentric circle appeared to be uniform. The system was extremely complicated, but it worked; Ptolemy could use it to calculate any future position of Mars... Ptolemy could justly boast that he had laid the keystone of Greek astronomy.... Mathematically speaking, this was true; henceforth, everything was calculable.... The planets now traveled in loops, that is to say, around an imaginary point that for unknown reasons itself revolved around the Earth....
¶ bp50» "A man named Kepler, fifteen hundred years after Ptolemy, at last was able to refute the last word of Greek astronomy, and overcome the mathematical sovereignty of nonsense by even more exact mathematics, which once more made everything meaningful." (Rudolf Thiel, And There was Light, trans. by Richard and Clara Winston, pp. 49-51)
¶ bp51» Ptolemy's system had the earth as the center with the stars, moon, planets, and even the sun circling the earth each day. Ptolemy used the wrong and illusionary concept of epicycles to explain the apparent movement of the planets in the night. He further used mathematics to predict the future movement of planets. His system worked to a remarkable degree. It had a mathematical system to back it up. His book was well written and seemed quite logical. After all even today the planet, sun, moon, and stars do apparently circle the earth. Ptolemy system made sense out of wandering stars (planets). It predicted future positions of planets. It was the great system. It lasted for almost 1500 years. Apparently it was the perfect system. It was backed by mathematics. It was apparently backed by observation. But it was wrong. How wrong can you be to think that the massive sun circles the earth each day? But because of the prevailing mindset Ptolemy remained king. A mindset can be very compelling. It rules all. Since 1984 English readers have been able to read Ptolemy's work, as translated by G.J. Toomer, Ptolemy's Almagest. In this translation you can see the apparent logic to the whole work. You can see the massive amount of tables, observations, and mathematics to back Ptolemy's theory.
¶ bp52» How can a work so logical, based on so many observations, and backed up by mathematics be wrong? It was wrong because it was based on some faulty thinking (the enormous sun going around the smaller earth would have to move at an unbelievable rate), because Ptolemy was a charlatan that cheated on his mathematical figures and cheated on his observations (Newton, The Crime of Claudius Ptolemy), and because he had a mindset that told him that all heavenly objects were perfect and god-like, they moved in perfect circles, he thus placed epicycles into his system:
Ptolemy got his mindset about the orbits having to be perfect circular orbits from the Greeks such as Aristotle:
Ptolemy was so overly influenced by the Grecian philosophy that he fabricated a mathematical system to help prove his preposterous belief: "We think that the mathematician’s task and goal ought to be to show all the heavenly phenomena being reproduced by uniform circular motions..." (Toomer, p. 140)
¶ bp53» Today math is used extensively to "prove" likewise absurd theories. They do not appear preposterous to most today only because of today's mindsets which filter reality. In the Science Papers you will see how mathematics are wrongly used today in this so-called scientific age. Today mathematics are blinding otherwise intelligent people into believing in absolutely paradoxical and nonsensical theories on the cosmos, physics, and biology. Today much of what is called science exists inside of a mindset that shuts out the truth.
¶ bp54» Because of the phenomenon of mindsets, we must be very careful how we judge other peoples' actions and words. If we make fast judgments, without all the facts, we will make lots of mistakes. This also means that you must be careful how you judge my work before you study it. Because of the phenomenon of mindset(s) even if you study my work you may still misunderstand it. But may this not occur.
¶ bp55» Fundamental Christians think college professors are fools, while college professors think fundamental Christians are fools. Both do not perceive each other correctly and read more into each other's beliefs than may be fair.
¶ bp56» Catholics think Protestants are wrong; Protestants think Catholics are wrong. Jews think the Arabs are wrong; Arabs think the Jews are wrong. They look at each other through filters and project wrong motives on each other's every move.
¶ bp57» Mindsets are a fact of life. In order to judge others we must become aware of our own mindset. In order for others to judge us they must become aware of their own mindset.
¶ bp58» A person with one mindset judging a person with another mindset is somewhat like two people from different cultures and languages trying to understand each other's speech. A Russian trying to understand an American must not only learn English, but the history of Americans and the culture of Americans. Words spoken in English not only have a literal meaning, but a cultural meaning. The words from an English Bible, "the spirit is willing, but the flesh is weak," could be interpreted by a non-Bible reading Russian as "the wine is good, but the meat is awful."
¶ bp59» The main problem with a mindset occurs when you try to communicate with someone with a different mindset. Sometimes it is almost impossible. A Catholic trying to convert a Protestant has a terrible time trying to communicate his point of view, and vice versa. Many times even trying to communicate your different point of view will be met with a harsh reaction and sometimes even a violent reaction. Why?
¶ bp60» One book tried to explain this. Daniel Cohen, in a 1982 book, called Re:Thinking, put it this way:
¶ bp61» With our mindset we see only what our mindset allows us to see. It acts like a filter and filters out any pattern not belonging to the sets of rules we have etched in our brain cells. If our language has a verbal system with future and past tense verbs, it is difficult for us to understand another language that only has verbs of complete or incomplete actions. This last fact is one of the main reasons people haven't been able to understand the nature of the Biblical Power (God) as described in the Old Testament. (see God Papers) The mind-set problem is also a reason why people have difficulty in understanding the people of foreign languages and cultures.
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Press of the BeComingOne Church
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